An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess endgame position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Composed studies predate the modern form of chess. Shatranj studies exist in manuscripts from the 9th century, and the earliest treatises on modern chess by the likes of Luis Ramirez Lucena and Pedro Damiano (late 15th and early 16th century) also include studies. However, these studies often include superfluous pieces, added to make the position look more "game-like", but which take no part in the actual solution (something that is never done in the modern study). Various names were given to these positions (Damiano, for example, called them "subtleties"); the first book which called them "studies" appears to be Chess Studies, an 1851 publication by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, which is sometimes also regarded as the starting point for the modern endgame study. The form is considered to have been raised to an art in the late 19th century, with A. A. Troitsky and Henri Rinck particularly important in this respect.
In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visualnotes. Studies are often used to understand the problems involved in rendering subjects and to plan the elements to be used in finished works, such as light, color, form, perspective and composition. Studies can have more impact than more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist gains while exploring the subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist's sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.
Studies inspired some of the first 20th century conceptual art, where the creative process itself becomes the subject of the piece. Since the process is what is all-important in studies and conceptual art, the viewer may be left with no material object of art.
In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. Unless playing with multiple decks, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers.
Various languages have different terminology for suits such as colors, signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suit-systems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are generally considered a separate system on its own.
Juggling clubs are a prop used by jugglers and can also mean a social organisation where jugglers meet to practice juggling skills. Juggling clubs are often simply called clubs by jugglers and sometimes are referred to as pins or batons by non-jugglers. Clubs are one of the three most popular props used by jugglers; the others being balls and rings.
A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 10.6oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
A juggling club's shape is similar to a bowling pin's and an Indian club's. Modern juggling clubs are, however, distinct from these objects because they differ in the materials they are made of, the way they are constructed, their weight and weight distribution, and are therefore not usually interchangeable.
The non-smoking population are also exposed to second-hand smoke, particularly in hospitality venues such as bars, hotels, restaurants, night clubs, and pubs," the study said ... It would also reduce cigarette consumption among smokers including shisha among the youth, the study said.
Broader access to a hybrid learning model would mean that students with weighty family responsibilities like Caceres — a double major in child development and family studies and family life education as well the commissioner for the campus' Pregnant and Parenting Students Club — ...
Concentrating on her studies and playing both school and club volleyball kept her busy and were her priorities during her high school years she noted, along with her family and friends ...Norman and owned by DiscoverySeniorLiving, located on Carriage Club Drive in Mooresville.
As Pune is an educational hub students from across the country come here for studies and the majority make use of libraries ... Now, we hope that the situation improves and students return to the city,” said Ajaiz Shaikh, president of the Abhyasika Owners AssociationMaharashtra Rajya, who also is the owner of ‘Readers club’ study circle in Pune.
One hundred years ago, in 1921, when the Torrance Woman’s Club was founded, the newly incorporated city of Torrance was not much more than farmland ... The club, like its members, have evolved over the years ... And there were men’s organizations,” said JanetPayne, a club member who has studied the history.
I earned my high school diploma and associate’s degree in general studies at the same time. While at COM, I was a part of various academic clubs like Phi Theta Kappa and Nu Psi ... studying philosophy.
Varsity cross country (4 years, 4 letters); varsity track and field (4 years, 4 letters); Chess Club, Spanish Club ... (Carl) Bruno pushes me in my English studies, and he helped me improve all year ...
The scholarship is awarded annually to a junior or senior at Cumberlands studying special education who is from Whitley, McCreary, Knox, Laurel, or Bell County...Richardson, who is from Williamsburg, Kentucky, is a middle school education major with emphases in special education and social studies.
...ServiceHappy Teens Club. The non governmental organization conducted the study between October and March, interviewing 860 youngsters aged between 12 and 24 years, and 90 percent of which were full-time students.
Chapter G and the Round TableBook Club; and as a 32-year member of Finches, a small book and study club ...Bob Kerrey appointed her to a statewide committee to study the needs of higher education across Nebraska ... through the years as a welcoming, supportive place to work and study.
The spacecraft company founded by billionaire Jeff Bezos announced Saturday that an unnamed person won an auction to join the Amazon founder on the company's maiden flight into space ... The company said the winning amount will be donated to Blue Origin's Club for the Future, which promotes tech and science studies among young people ... .