An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess endgame position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Composed studies predate the modern form of chess. Shatranj studies exist in manuscripts from the 9th century, and the earliest treatises on modern chess by the likes of Luis Ramirez Lucena and Pedro Damiano (late 15th and early 16th century) also include studies. However, these studies often include superfluous pieces, added to make the position look more "game-like", but which take no part in the actual solution (something that is never done in the modern study). Various names were given to these positions (Damiano, for example, called them "subtleties"); the first book which called them "studies" appears to be Chess Studies, an 1851 publication by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, which is sometimes also regarded as the starting point for the modern endgame study. The form is considered to have been raised to an art in the late 19th century, with A. A. Troitsky and Henri Rinck particularly important in this respect.
In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visualnotes. Studies are often used to understand the problems involved in rendering subjects and to plan the elements to be used in finished works, such as light, color, form, perspective and composition. Studies can have more impact than more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist gains while exploring the subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist's sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.
Studies inspired some of the first 20th century conceptual art, where the creative process itself becomes the subject of the piece. Since the process is what is all-important in studies and conceptual art, the viewer may be left with no material object of art.
In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. Unless playing with multiple decks, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers.
Various languages have different terminology for suits such as colors, signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suit-systems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are generally considered a separate system on its own.
Juggling clubs are a prop used by jugglers and can also mean a social organisation where jugglers meet to practice juggling skills. Juggling clubs are often simply called clubs by jugglers and sometimes are referred to as pins or batons by non-jugglers. Clubs are one of the three most popular props used by jugglers; the others being balls and rings.
A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 10.6oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
A juggling club's shape is similar to a bowling pin's and an Indian club's. Modern juggling clubs are, however, distinct from these objects because they differ in the materials they are made of, the way they are constructed, their weight and weight distribution, and are therefore not usually interchangeable.
The MorningStudy Cub held two called meetings to prepare for the official beginning of the 2021-2022 year, which starts with the Oct. 21 meeting, according to a news release ... Programs and chairmen of the day were selected as well as special occasion dates ... Recommended For You ....
I attended the Consolidation Meeting on October 12 at the DuboisCountry Club. After studying the proposal (CITY OF DUBOIS AND SANDY TOWNSHIP CONSOLIDATION STUDY), I submitted two questions that were not addressed. 1 ... Exclusion of these and possibly other items, overstates the expected tax savings ... 2 ... Steven K. Smith. Treasure Lake ... ....
Italian champion Maria Cecchi faces Bec Connolly in Rome. RINGSIDE. October 20th, 2021 ...The EuropeanBoxingUnion named Maria Cecchi official challenger to Euro super bantamweight champion MaryRomero ... I studied dance for many years, I danced in clubs and in many music videos, but that job is too stressing for the body of a pro fighter ... ....
She sang professionally in Detroit finest jazz clubs and was an in-house singer at the CliffBells in downtown Detroit ... She belonged to many clubs, including singing in the USO. She was also president of the MusicStudy Club of Metropolitan Detroit for many years. The club sponsored ...
LSU yanked him from the classroom after his arrest, but d’Espalungue continued to interact freely with undergraduate students through the LSU French Club, the LSU-sanctioned American Journal of French Studies, and through several other avenues, according to the lawsuit.
In eight related studies, people tended to have fewer problems with hearing about the extreme wealth of a particular wealthy person, even as they thought it was unfair that billionaires in general controlled so much riches ...Walker conducted the study with Thomas Gilovich, professor of psychology, and Stephanie Tepper, a Ph.D.
James' Park again, Adel Al-Shammari, a Saudi studying at university in Newcastle, was watching in bemusement ...Abdulrahman Alshmasi traveled to Newcastle from the central English city of Birmingham where he is studying to watch the club he started supporting when the protracted buyout was completed less than two weeks ago.
GENEVA (AP) — A second soccer legal case is heading to the European Court of Justice, after the referral of the Super League clubs’ dispute with UEFA... It challenges the Belgian soccer federation for setting quotas of homegrown players in a club’s first-team squad and matchday team list.