An endgame study, or just study, is a composed chess endgame position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find a way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
Composed studies predate the modern form of chess. Shatranj studies exist in manuscripts from the 9th century, and the earliest treatises on modern chess by the likes of Luis Ramirez Lucena and Pedro Damiano (late 15th and early 16th century) also include studies. However, these studies often include superfluous pieces, added to make the position look more "game-like", but which take no part in the actual solution (something that is never done in the modern study). Various names were given to these positions (Damiano, for example, called them "subtleties"); the first book which called them "studies" appears to be Chess Studies, an 1851 publication by Josef Kling and Bernhard Horwitz, which is sometimes also regarded as the starting point for the modern endgame study. The form is considered to have been raised to an art in the late 19th century, with A. A. Troitsky and Henri Rinck particularly important in this respect.
In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visualnotes. Studies are often used to understand the problems involved in rendering subjects and to plan the elements to be used in finished works, such as light, color, form, perspective and composition. Studies can have more impact than more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist gains while exploring the subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist's sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.
Studies inspired some of the first 20th century conceptual art, where the creative process itself becomes the subject of the piece. Since the process is what is all-important in studies and conceptual art, the viewer may be left with no material object of art.
In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. Most often, each card bears one of several pips (symbols) showing to which suit it belongs; the suit may alternatively or additionally be indicated by the color printed on the card. The rank for each card is determined by the number of pips on it. Ranking indicates which cards within a suit are better, higher or more valuable than others, whereas there is no order between the suits unless defined in the rules of a specific card game. Unless playing with multiple decks, there is exactly one card of any given rank in any given suit. A deck may include special cards that belong to no suit, often called jokers.
Various languages have different terminology for suits such as colors, signs, or seeds. Modern Western playing cards are generally divided into two or three general suit-systems. The older Latin suits are subdivided into the Italian and Spanish suit-systems. The younger Germanic suits are subdivided into the German and Swiss suit-systems. The French suits are a derivative of the German suits but are generally considered a separate system on its own.
Juggling clubs are a prop used by jugglers and can also mean a social organisation where jugglers meet to practice juggling skills. Juggling clubs are often simply called clubs by jugglers and sometimes are referred to as pins or batons by non-jugglers. Clubs are one of the three most popular props used by jugglers; the others being balls and rings.
A typical club is in the range of 50 centimetres (20in) long, weighs between 200 and 300 grams (7.1 and 10.6oz), is slim at the "handle" end, and has its center of balance nearer the wider "body" end. The definition of a club is somewhat ambiguous; sticks or rods are allowed under the current Juggling Information Service (JIS) rules for juggling world records.
A juggling club's shape is similar to a bowling pin's and an Indian club's. Modern juggling clubs are, however, distinct from these objects because they differ in the materials they are made of, the way they are constructed, their weight and weight distribution, and are therefore not usually interchangeable.
every Sunday for those who wish to participate in a small group study ... Our Wednesday night Bible study is at 7 p.m. We have a nursery, youth clubs and adult Bible study and prayer time ... and Adult Bible Study at 9.45 ... Youth Club meets in-person Wednesday at 4.30 p.m ... The Bible study hour meets at 9.15 A.M. We are studying Luke chapters 1 - 9.
The study group said maintaining the wilderness as wild was a priority ... — Further study and planning for parking and shuttle management, like that already being done in the Keene Valley access area ... The AdirondackCouncil, which was represented on the study committee, praised the report, as did the Adirondack Mountain Club.
Specially-trained sniffer dogs are able to detect positive cases of Covid-19 more than a week before lab swabs, a study has found. A pilot on the effectiveness of Covid sniffer dogs was conducted on players at Belgian football club KV Oostende... Previous studies have found a distinctive 'corona odour' is present from the very first day of infection.
DuBOIS — Sandy Township Manager Shawn Arbaugh, at this week’s supervisors’ meeting, provided several updates on the consolidation study for the township and the City of DuBois ... Though a written fire study report is not yet available, Sohyda will also give a presentation on Tuesday, March 16, in conjunction with the PEL consolidation study.
Help came from many sides including the FitnessCenter which provided more than 850 members with hot showers, while the GrevenCrosswinds Club served more than 230 hot meals, including 182 heater meals similar to meals ready to eat (MREs). The club also provided study rooms, games and movies for those displaced by the storm.
The main objective of the programme is to introduce STEM education model to enhance the capacity of children studying in institutions, with a special focus on science and Math subjects and establishment of STEM clubs.
MariaCage was born in Tennessee in 1844 ... In 1891, she became a founding member of the Wednesday Club and served as the group’s president for the next 10 years. A cultural and literary study club for women, the Wednesday Club met at Kimball’s studio twice each month to discuss books, sociological subjects, history and art ... ....
Along this line, two more University of Wisconsin studies, co-authored by Watson, are nothing short of gut-punching ... That study furthermore found no difference in infection rates between clubs training in uber-careful, socially distanced, non-contact environments and those that returned to normal, unrestrained, full-contact practices and games.
“Typically, only 3-8% of the rainfall that Bengaluru gets goes below one metre into the aquifers. Through recharge wells, you can increase it up to 50-60%.”. When Rainwater Club founder Vishwanath S reiterates this with successful case studies, residents of the 110 villages, preparing for another summer assault ought to sit up and take notice ... ....
Christians in Western countries are in Lent, when many fast in the lead-up to Easter, which is on April 4 ... After this Sunday, Orthodox Christians avoid eating meat ... Instead of a traditional Bible study, the program uses a book club format, and readers dive into the “stories, poetry, letters and other literature” that are part of Scripture ... .
After a few-months burst of all-Jewish Zoom calls all the time, a combination of Zoom exhaustion and people realizing this was going to continue and that hosting was real work that they deserved to get paid for (and they do!) reduced the constant possibilities of prayer, study, book clubs and song sessions.